Is it possible to predict who will develop Alzheimer’s disease by looking at writing patterns years before symptoms occur?
According to a new study by IBM researchers, the answer is yes.
And, he and others say that Alzheimer’s is just the beginning. People with a variety of neurological diseases have specific language patterns that, investigators suspect, may serve as early warning signs of their diseases.
For Alzheimer’s studies, researchers looked at a group of 80 men and women in the 80s – half had Alzheimer’s and others did not. But, seven and a half years ago, all were cognitively normal.
Men and women were participating in the Framingham Heart Study, a long-standing federal research effort that required routine physical and cognitive tests. As part of this, he took a written test before either of them developed Alzheimer’s, which asks subjects to describe a drawing of a boy standing on a makeshift stool and a high shelf for a woman. To reach the cookie jar, he is oblivious to her back, an overflow sink.
Researchers investigated word usage of subjects with an artificial intelligence program that looked for subtle differences in language. This identified a set of subjects who were more repetitive in their word usage at a time when they were all cognitively normal. Errors also occurred in these topics, such as capitalizing words incorrectly or improperly, and they used telegraphic language, meaning that there is a simple grammatical structure and memorizing topics and words such as “,” “and” are doing.
Members of that group became people with Alzheimer’s disease.
Air India Program Predicted, with 75 percent accuracy, that would get Alzheimer’s disease, According to the results recently published in The Lancet magazine EClinicalMedicine.
“We had no prior belief that the use of the word would show anything,” IBM Thomas J. in York Town Heights, NY. Said Ajay Royyuru, vice president of health care and life sciences research at Watson Research Center, where AI analysis was done.
Alzheimer’s researchers were surrounded by saying that while there are ways to slow or stop the disease – a goal that has remained elusive so far – it will be important to conduct simple tests that can warn, quickly Progressive development without any person will be brain disease.
“What’s going on here is very clever” dr. Said Jason Karlwash, an Alzheimer’s researcher at the University of Pennsylvania. “Given a large amount of spoken or written speech, can you sneak a sign?”
Over the years, researchers have analyzed speech and voice changes in people who have symptoms of neurological diseases – Alzheimer’s, ALS, Parkinson’s, frontotemporal dementia, bipolar disease and schizophrenia, among others.
But, Dr. The IBM report breaks new ground, said Michael Wener, who researches Alzheimer’s disease at the University of California at San Francisco.
“This is the first report I’ve seen that took people who are completely normal and predicted with some accuracy that would be problems years later,” he said.
The hope is that there will be subtle changes in the use of language by people with no obvious symptoms to expand Alzheimer’s work, but who will go on to develop other neurological diseases.
Each neurological disease produces unique changes in speech, which probably occur long before the time of diagnosis, Drs. Said Murray Grossman, a professor of neurology at the University of Pennsylvania and director of the university’s frontotemporal dementia center.
He is studying speech in patients with a behavioral form of frontotemporal dementia, a disorder caused by progressive loss of nerves in the frontal brain. These patients show apathy and a decline in judgment, self control, and empathy that has proved difficult to determine purposefully.
Speech is different, dr. Grossman said, because changes can be measured.
Early in that disease, there are changes in the speech speed of the patients, with the pauses being randomly distributed. Word usage changes, too – patients use less abstract words.
Dr. Grossman said that these changes are directly related to changes in the anterior part of the brain. And they seem universal, not unique to English.
The director of the Neuroscience Clinical Research Unit at the University of California, San Francisco, Drs. Adam Boxer is also studying frontotemporal dementia. Their tool is a smartphone app. Their subjects are healthy people who have inherited a genetic tendency to develop the disease. Their method is to show subjects a picture and they are asked to record details of what they see.
He said, “We want to measure very early changes, five to 10 years ago.
“Good thing about Boxer,” Dr. “It’s that you can do all kinds of work,” said Boxer. Researchers can ask people to talk for a minute about something that happened that day, they said, or to repeat sounds like tetatata.
Dr. Boxer said that he and others were focused on speech, because they wanted tests that were non-effective and inexpensive.
Psychiatrist Dr. of the Icon School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York. Cheryl Corcoran hopes to use speech changes to predict that adolescents and young adults may be at higher risk for developing the disease.
Medications that treat schizophrenia can help those who are going to develop the disease, but the challenge is to identify who the patients will be. A quarter of people with symptoms occasionally saw them go away, and about a third never progressed to schizophrenia, although their topical condition persisted.
Guillermo Cecchi, an IBM researcher who was recently involved in Alzheimer’s research, Dr. Studied speech in 34 patients of CorcoranLooking for a “flight of ideas”, examples meant when patients were off track when talking in different directions and cutting ideas. He also looked for “poverty of speech”, which meant the use of simple syntactic structures and short sentences.
In addition, Drs. Cecchi and his colleagues studied another small group consisting of 96 patients in Los Angeles – 59 of whom had occasional delusions. The rest were healthy people and people with schizophrenia. He asked these subjects to retell a story they had just heard, and they looked for the same guppy speech patterns.
In both groups, the Artificial Intelligence Program could predict with 85 percent accuracy the subjects who developed schizophrenia three years later.
Dr. “These are just a few small studies finding the same sign,” Corcoran said. At this point, she said, “We are not at the point right now where we can tell people whether they are at risk.”
Dr. Cecchi is encouraged, though he finds that the study is still in its infancy.
“For us, doing science correctly and at scale is a priority,” he said. “We should have many more samples. There are over 60 million psychiatric interviews each year in the US, but none of those interviews use the tools we have. “