At least 30 million people in the United States – and probably many others whose illnesses were never diagnosed – have been infected with coronovirus so far. Should these people still be vaccinated?
Two new studies answer that question with emphatic yes.
In fact, research suggests that just one dose of the vaccine is enough for these people to turbocharge their antibodies and destroy coronaviruses – and even some of the more infectious variants.
The results of these new studies are consistent. Two other conclusions Published in the last few weeks. Taken together, research suggests that people who have Kovid-19 should be vaccinated – but one dose of the vaccine may be sufficient.
“I think it’s a really strong argument as to why people who were previously infected with Kovid should get the vaccine,” said Jennifer Gomerman, an immunologist at the University of Toronto, who was not involved in the new research.
A person’s immune response to a natural infection is highly variable. Most people make abundant amounts of antibodies that persist for several months. But some people who had mild symptoms or no symptoms of Kovid-19 produce some antibodies, which quickly drop to undesirable levels.
TK “Even the Playground”, Drs. Gomerman said, so that whoever is recovered from Kovid-19 produces enough antibodies to protect against the virus.
Latest study, Which has not yet been published in a scientific journal, has analyzed blood samples from people who have Kovid-19. The findings suggest that their immune system will have trouble shutting down B.1.351, a coronavirus variant first identified in South Africa.
But one shot from either Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccine changed the picture considerably: it increased the amount of antibodies in his blood by a thousandfold – “a massive, massive boost”, Andrew T. Said McGuire, an immunologist at Fred Hutchinson’s. Cancer Research Center In Seattle, who led the study.
Flush with antibodies, samples from all participants can neutralize not only B.1.351, but also coronaviruses that caused the SARS epidemic in 2003.
In fact, antibodies fared better than those who did not have Kovid and received two doses of a vaccine. Several studies have suggested that Pfizer-Bayonet and Modern Vaccines are nearly five times less effective than variants.
Researchers get blood samples from 10 volunteers Seattle Kovid Cohort Study Those who were vaccinated months after coronovirus contraction. Seven of the participants received the Pfizer-BioNotech vaccine and three received the modern vaccine.
There was a significant jump in the amount of antibodies in the blood approximately two to three weeks after vaccination compared to the samples collected after vaccination. Researchers do not yet know how long the increased amount of antibodies will persist, but “hopefully, they will last longer,” Dr. McGear said.
Researchers also noticed an increase in immune cells that remember and fight the virus, Drs. McGear said. “It looks very clear that we are increasing their already existing immunity,” he said.
in Another new studyResearchers at the University of New York found that a second dose of the vaccine did not add much benefit to people who have Kovid-19 – a phenomenon also seen with vaccines for other viruses.
In that study, most people were infected with coronovirus eight or nine months ago, but their antibodies increased a hundredfold to a thousandfold when given the first dose of a vaccine. After the second dose, however, antibody levels did not increase further.
The director of the NYU Langone Vaccine Center and the lead author of the study, Drs. Mark J. Mulligan said, “This is a true testament to the strength of immunological memory, in which they receive a single dose and a very large increase.”
In some parts of the world, including the United States, a significant minority of the population has already been infected, Drs. Mulligan said. “They should definitely be vaccinated,” he said.
It is unclear whether a thousand-fold spike in antibody levels recorded in the laboratory would occur in real-life settings. Nevertheless, research suggests that Florian Kramer, an immunologist at the Icon School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York, said that a single shot is enough to significantly increase antibody levels.
Dr. Kramer led Another of the new studies, Which showed that people who have Kovid-19 and received a single dose of vaccine experienced more severe side effects from the vaccination and had more antibodies than those who had not been previously infected.
“If you put all four papers together, it provides very good information about people who already needed a vaccination,” Dr. Kramer said.
He and other researchers are trying to convince scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to recommend only one dose for those recovered from Kovid-19.
Ideally, those people should be monitored after the first shot when their antibody levels decline after a few weeks or months, Denise R., an immunologist at the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, California. Burton said.
The fact that the supercharged antibodies seen in the new study can fight the 2003 SARS virus suggests that a single dose of vaccine may have induced the body of volunteers to produce “broadly neutralizing antibodies” – Able to attack a wide range of immune molecule related. Virus, dr. Burton said.
He and other scientists spent decades investigating whether widespread neutralizing antibodies could deal with multiple versions of HIV at once. HIV mutates faster than any other virus and quickly develops most antibodies.
The new coronovirus mutates very slowly, but now there are several types of viruses that have evolved to be more contagious or to thwart the immune system. The new study may provide clues as to how Apply the same vaccine Dr. Burton said that broadly neutralizing antibodies stimulates the production of antibodies that can destroy all types of coronoviruses.
Without this type of vaccine, scientists would need to apply the vaccine to make significant changes to the virus each time. “You’re stuck in a kind of Whac-a-Mole approach,” he said. It will probably take several months if there is not much time to develop and test that type of vaccine against coronovirus, but “this is the long-term way to contact this virus.”