Meaning of soil
The upper surface of the earth, in which plants and trees are grown, is called soil. Soil is a natural resource, which is a complex mixture of many components. Most of it is made up of fine particles of stone.
Major components of soil(About Soil meaning in hindi)
- WaterWater is present in the spaces between the soil particles and on their outer surface.
- Wind-The spaces between the soil particles are called pores, in which air as well as water are filled. The respiration of the plant continues in this air.
- organic matterThe decomposition of dead organisms (such as plants, animals and bacteria) brings organic matter into the soil, which is called humus. Humus provides nitrogen and phosphorus to the soil.
- inorganic matterThe inorganic substances present in the stones from which the soil is formed also get mixed in the soil. The use of chemical fertilizers and fertilizers also brings inorganic nutrients to the soil.
- mineralsThe minerals present in the soil are called nutrients, which are helpful in the growth and development of plants. These include hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron, copper, zinc etc.
Formation of soil meaning in hindi
Soil is formed by the weathering of rocks. The following are the causes of weathering of stone.
Effect of Sun’s heat
During the day the sun heats the stones, causing them to expand. During the night, the stones become compact due to cooling. Each part of the stone expands and contracts unevenly through cracks, due to which the stones move and these large stones break into small particles.
Effect of water
About Soil meaning in hindi-Water forms soil in two ways.
(i) Water gets absorbed in the cracks of the stones formed by the heat of the sun and after cooling this water freezes in the cracks of the stone. The freezing of water leads to an increase in volume, resulting in the widening of the rift and a landslide.
(ii) The fast-flowing water carries with it large and small stones. These stones collide with other stones and break into small particles. These particles are carried away by water and left at another place.
effect of wind
Air also carries the fine particles of stone like water from one place to another, which leads to the formation of soil. In this way the process of breaking large pieces of stone into small particles is called weathering.
90% of the soil is particulate matter obtained from weathering. Pieces of rotten plants and animals are also found in it, which is called humus. Apart from this, different types of microorganisms are also found in the soil.
The quality of the soil is known on the basis of the amount of humus present in it and the microorganisms found in it. Humus makes the soil porous, which helps air and water to penetrate the soil. Many types of mineral nutrients also come from the stones in the soil.
Type of soil
About Soil meaning in hindi-There are several types of soil which are determined by the average size of the particles found in them. The size of the particles found in sand is large and the particles found in clay are the smallest. The size of the particles found in silt is between sand and mud.
The soil suitable for the production of plants is called loam. This soil is a mixture of sand, silt and mud, which also contains humus and microorganisms, which maintain the fertility of the soil. Which plant should be planted on which soil, it depends on what are the nutrients in that soil, how much is the amount of humus and what is its depth?
(i) Soil provides mechanical protection to the plants.
(ii) Roots of plants obtain oxygen from the soil. For this, the soil was loosened from time to time by whipping.
(iii) Plants get essential nutrients from the soil for their growth and development.
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