What Is Gagakonan Mission, History, Features Of Gaganyakan Mission, Challenges Of Gaganyakan Mission

The Indian space program started in the 1960s, since then India has successfully carried out many space missions and made a global identity for itself, but all these missions were unmanned. Gaganyaan mission will be India’s first manned space mission, which was announced by the current Prime Minister Narendra Modi on the occasion of Independence Day in the year 2018.

According to the Prime Minister, when India will be celebrating the 75th anniversary of independence in 2022, any red mother of India, whether son or daughter, will go into space with the tricolor. In such a short time, this goal seems very challenging, but if India succeeds in it, then it will prove to be a historic mission in India’s space research field. Also, India will be the fourth country in the world to do so.

Gaganyaan mission is one of the most ambitious and revolutionary missions of Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) till date. This is India’s first manned space mission, which will be launched by GSLV Mark-III. Gaganyaan is an orbital propelled spacecraft, which is being designed in such a way that it can carry three or four astronauts in space. Under this program, India has signed agreements with Russia and France. This is a national effort involving the participation of industry, academia and national agencies spread across the country.

Objectives of Gagakonan Mission

Experiencing microgravity conditions in space. To further increase the level of science and technology in the country. To motivate the youth of the country to take big challenges and increase their credibility in the space program at the global level.

Background of gaganyakan mission

  • Although India’s first manned space mission ‘Gaganyaan’ was announced in the year 2018, its preparations were going on long before.
  • The human space mission was approved by ISRO’s policy making committee in 2004, but at the time of this announcement it was not said when it would be launched.
  • The first public announcement about the human space program was made in the year 2007.
  • India has been trying for a long time for the successful launch of a manned mission in space. In this sequence, the Technical Demonstrator Test of Launch Vehicle (2016) and the development of GSLV Mark-III Launch Vehicle in Reusable have been done.
  • When a manned mission to space is sent, it will need a reusable launch vehicle to bring it back from the space atmosphere to the Earth’s atmosphere. A satellite weighing up to 8000 kg is to be placed in low earth orbit at an altitude of about 500-600 km with the help of GSLV Mark-III launch vehicle. It is significant that
    The Gaganyaan mission is established at such a height. From this point of view the development of both is very important. –
  • In the year 2018, the first scape system or pad abort was successfully tested. This test is considered a great success in this direction.
  • It is noteworthy that before the Gaganyaan mission, ISRO will send two unmanned missions in December, 2020 and June, 2021. Both these missions will be sent with Vyommitra.

Features of Gaganyaan Mission

  • The cost will be around ₹ 10,000 crore and the mission will be completely indigenous. Before this mission, ISRO will send two unmanned missions on an experimental basis. The spacecraft named Gaganyaan will have a weight of 7 tons, a height of 7 meters and a roundness of meters. –
  • It will be equipped with docking capability and will have a crew module and service module. The Crew Module will have three Vyomnauts (Indian Astronauts), while the Service Module will have temperature and air pressure controlling equipment, Life Support System, food supplies and oxygen etc. Space suit of this mission
  • It will be launched from Sriharikota Satish Dhawan Launch Center in Andhra Pradesh. An important feature of Mission Gaganyaan is that it is commanded by a woman scientist V.R. Lalithambika will take care of it.
  • Gaganyaan will be placed in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) located at an altitude of about 500-600 km above the Earth.
    Environmental control system will be installed in this mission for the life safety of the astronauts sent with the help of the mission. In this, two engines with liquid propellant will be installed, which will give high speed to the vehicle. This manned space mission will be monitored from ISRO Telemetry Tracking and Command Center in Bangalore.
  • A semi-human female robot Vyommitra was unveiled by ISRO for Gaganyaan in January 2020. This semi-human robot with many features will be launched before India’s first manned space mission. .
  • This robot will simulate human tasks required for spaceflight during its test flight. – It can perform all crew functions such as switch-panel operation, environmental control and life-support system.
  • ISRO has scheduled two unmanned flights with Vyommitra in December, 2020 and July, 2021.

Importance of Gagakonan Mission

  • This mission will give more impetus to research and development in the field of science and technology in the country. This will further enhance India’s technical credibility at the global level. .
  • This mission will give impetus to economic activities in terms of employment generation, human resource development and industrial capabilities including growth. The youth of India will get inspiration from this mission.
  • This mission will create a comprehensive framework for collaboration between ISRO, academia, industry, national agencies and other scientific organizations. At present, there is a discussion about space transport and space tourism. Therefore, if this mission becomes successful then it will also bring economic benefits to India.
  • Gaganyaan mission will enable India for future global space programs with long-term national benefits. Although India has already achieved credibility through Chandrayaan and Mangalyaan etc., with the success of Gaganyaan mission, the credibility and effectiveness of Indian Space Research Organization will increase further.
  • If this mission becomes successful then India will be the fourth country in the world to achieve such a feat. Earlier America, Russia and China have achieved this feat. In fact, America and Russia had developed it only during the Cold War, but China achieved this goal in the year 2003, due to which it has become very important for India too.
  • It is to say that the main competitor of India is China, which is challenging India everywhere. In such a situation, India also needs to go ahead of China in the race of space technology. Therefore, China can be balanced with this mission.
  • With the success of this mission, India will get the benefit of exploiting the space resource.

Challenges of Gaganyaan Mission

Gaganyaan mission is the ambitious and revolutionary space program of our country, for which a population of 130 crores is wishing for its success. But there are also some challenges related to this mission, which cannot be denied.

Following are the challenges related to Gaganyaan mission

  • Manned Mission Other important missions of ISRO; For example, Chandrayaan is more complex than Mangalyaan etc. Therefore, ISRO not only needs more finance to launch a manned mission, but it is also necessary to have advanced technology.
    It is very challenging to send astronauts to space and bring them back to earth safely. In this context, first of all it is a big challenge to prepare the astronauts physically and mentally, because the astronauts have to develop the ability to work against nature also.
    The process of sending astronauts from the Space Shuttle to space and bringing them back is very expensive, while our lack of sufficient finance here is a big problem in itself.
  • Astronauts begin to change as they move out of Earth’s orbit. Due to changes in the gravitational field, the coordination between the brain, hands, eyes starts to become unbalanced and due to the absence of gravity, nutrients are lost in the bones, which increases the risk of osteoporosis. Along with this, many other types of physical problems and mental disorders arise due to radiation in space.
  • Specialists will be needed in the life-saving system that will be made for the astronauts, but India currently lacks these experts.
  • There is still research on equipment and technology at many levels, as well as the challenge of training astronauts etc.
  • It is very challenging for humans to live in a place with zero gravity, for this also proper training is required.


Thus, it can be said that the Gaganyaan mission is an ambitious program not only of ISRO and the Government of India, but for every Indian. With the success of this mission, on the one hand, the door will open for various knowledge in the context of space, while on the other hand India will be economically strong and make its presence felt on the global stage more effectively. Although there are some challenges in its path, but the Government of India and ISRO are doing rapid development work to deal with them, so that it can be successfully launched in 2022 and the whole nation feels proud.

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