What is Geomagnetism (Earth Magnetism in Hindi)-
Any magnet is tied to its center of gravity and hung, it will always north-south direction stays. Similarly, if an iron rod is buried inside the earth, it becomes a magnet.
It is clear from these examples that the earth also behaves like a magnet, as if there is a very powerful magnet located inside it, whose south pole is towards the north pole of the earth and the north pole towards the earth. south pole be located towards
The reason for this magnetic property of the Earth is not yet known and many opinions are expressed in this regard. Geologists in 1600 about the Earth’s magnetic property William Gilbert believed that the earth magnetic properties This is due to a very large magnet located inside it. But this concept was not accepted because there is so much heat inside the earth that magnetic property cannot exist in any magnet there.
According to Grover, magnetism flowing around it electric currents Due to this. According to another theory, due to the excessive heat inside the earth, metals like iron remain in molten state and due to the rotation of the earth on its axis, these molten metals convection currents arise due to magnetic field is generated.
It is believed that the axis of the Earth’s magnet makes an angle of 11.5° with the axis of its rotation.
Earth’s magnetism has three components-
(1) angle of declination,
(2) angle of dip
(3) Horizontal component of magnetic field.
(1) angle of declination
center of gravity at some place on the earth magnetic needleThe vertical plane passing through the axis of (Earth magnetism in Hindi) is called magnetic meridian it is said. Whereas at some place the vertical plane passing through the line joining the geographic north and south poles of the earth is called geographic meridian it is said.
at any place magnetic meridian And the acute angle between the geographical, meridian is called the acute angle. It is denoted by α.
Angle of dip
If magnetic needle is to be hung from the center of gravity in such a way that it vertical floor If it is fixed in the magnetic meridian, then the needle will bend somewhat in the horizontal direction. this type of needle Dip Needle is called In the northern hemisphere of the earth, the north end of the needle and in the southern hemisphere the southern end of the needle bends downwards.
In this case the magnetic axis of the needle magnetic meridian The angle it makes with the horizontal direction is called the angle of dip.
Thus, the angle of dip is that angle which is formed between the direction of the magnetic field (Earth magnetism in Hindi) and the horizontal direction. It is denoted by .
Horizontal component of magnetic field
at some place magnetic meridian of the earth working in magnetic field can be adjusted into horizontal and vertical components.
Here the horizontal component H is very important from the point of view of magnetic experiments. α, θ एवं H From these three elements, at some place the earth’s magnetic field Full knowledge is attained.
Neutral Points –
The area of the curved magnet obtained while drawing the lines of force of a magnet and the horizontal plane of the earth magnetic field due to the resultant field.
near magnet magnetic field remains strong while the effect of Earth’s magnetic field remains negligible. As we move away from the magnet, the magnet’s field decreases and the relative influence of the Earth increases.
Thus there are some points away from the magnet where the horizontal component of the earth’s field is(Earth magnetism in hindi) is exactly equal to and in the opposite direction to the field of . these points neutral point it is said.
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