Hello friends, today in this article we will know what is the meaning of operating system, what is operating system. How operating system works. Why was the operating system created? What are the different types of operating systems. If you do not have much knowledge about operating system then you are absolutely right place. By the end of the article, you will get various information related to the operating system.
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What is Operating System
An operating system is a set of programs designed to manage a computer’s resources and in which to start the computer. This includes managing programs, managing memory, and coordinating tasks between input and output devices.
First of all, when we turn on the computer, the BIOS (Basic Input Output System) looks for the ROM chip on our motherboard. The BIOS chip contains instructions for using various expansion slots, ports, drives and operating systems. The boot sequence or start-up process begins as soon as the computer is turned on, under which the BIOS loads instructions and programming code from the chip. Then gives instructions in sequence.
Lists external and internal equipment and implements many self tests called Power On Self Tests. The computer gives an error code when an error is detected during this test. This error code is given when there is any problem in hardware such as memory, keyboard, monitor and disk drives.
After the successful completion of Power On Self Test, the process of boot strap starts which is called booting. Under this process the operating system starts. In this process the computer loads the operating system from secondary memory or auxiliary memory to main memory or RAM. In this process, all the components are properly connected to the computer system and it is also ensured that they are working.
Computer hardware does not understand our language, they understand the language of binary number 1 or 0, the operating system acts as a medium between the hardware, application system and the user. Its function is to run the computer and keep it functional. It converts our given instructions or data into machine language and works as a medium by converting the result (output) back into our language; Like- Windows 95, 98, Vista 2000, XP, MS-DOS (Disk Operating System) Unix, Linux etc.
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There are five types of operating system based on computer application and control.
Real time operating system:
Its main purpose is to provide fast response time to the user. These systems include machinery, scientific and
Used to control industrial equipment. In this, there is less user intervention, and the result of one program is used as input data in another program.
An important part of real-time operating systems is that a particular operation must be completed within a specified time period, otherwise the subsequent program will error out and the result will be halted. Example- scientific research, railway reservation, operation of satellites etc.
Time sharing operating system:
In this, the user has to share the same resource. The operating system balances the requirements of different users to see whether each program they are using is sufficient or not. Proper management of memory is essential in this operating system. In this, each program gets equal CPU time.
Single tasking operating system:
This type of ‘operating system’ allows a user to effectively do one thing at a time.
Batch processing operating system:
In this system work is done in group. That is, when the operating system does all the work in the group on priority basis without user intervention, then that system is called batch processing system; For example, making payroll, billing etc.
Multi programming operating system:
In such a system, more than one program or task is performed by the operating system at the same time. Each task is given a certain amount of CPU time, which is called time slicing.
Multi Processing Operating System or Parallel Processing System:
In this system, two or more central processing units are used in the same computer system.
Some Important Operating Systems
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MS-DOS MS-DOS (DiscOperating System):
It was Microsoft’s first operating system widely installed on personal computers. It is a simple non-graphical, command line operating system. It is simple but not user friendly as it requires memorization of commands. Its most popular version is 7.0.
It is a graphical user interface operating system developed by Microsoft. It took into account the shortcomings of MS-DOS and made it user friendly. Its other versions are Windows 95, Windows-98, Windows XP, Windows Vista as well. The most current server version is Windows Server 2008. It is also easy to learn and work on.
It is an operating system developed in 1969 by AT&T employees at the Weill Laboratory. Including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchic, Douglas McLroy and Joe Ossanna. The Unix operating system is widely used in both servers and workstations. Unix was first written in the assembly language. In 1973, it was rewritten in the C programming language. It consists of data management by the kernel.
Its first edition was brought in 1991. It is a Unix-like computer operating system based on the Linux kernel. It is mainly used for the operating system in the server. It is open source software.
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